People who want more information could then be referred onto a knowledgable and LGBT-friendly pharmacist in their area. This may be in response to the decreased purity of the drug in the tablet form.29 Previous studies from our group have shown significant variation in the MDMA content of MDMA tablets.30 As a consequence, there may be increased health risks as the dose ingested becomes more difficult to control when taken in a powdered form. In addition, a powdered form of MDMA was found. The TICTAC database was updated following this study with previously unseen logos on MDMA tablets to suggest the marketing of this drug is continually evolving. There has been a decrease in self-reported use of MDMA in recent years1,29 but it remains the fifth most common drug found in the amnesty bins. The analysis of the amnesty bins of two gay-friendly nightclubs in South East London has provided a snapshot of the likely pattern of drug use in the gay community.
Analysis was performed using close coding of five papers, resulting in two constructs termed “responsible action” and “risk ratchetting”. In addition, there were no specific measures in place to ensure consistency of the security checks performed at the door by staff which may be another source of bias. Analysis of amnesty bin samples is limited to what was discarded by the clubbers and/or found during door searches prior to entering the nightclub. Use of data from this study together with data from self-reported surveys and other studies such as the analysis of pooled urine can provide a more accurate picture of drug use. As an example, bulky drugs may be more likely to be detected than more discreet compounds. Finally, not all drugs were analysed and there is the potential, for example, that herbal products assumed to be cannabis may have contained synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists. This is because the anal mucus that lines the arse (we all have it) can contain a very high concentration of HIV. This is because there could be traces of HIV-infected anal mucus or blood on his cock. There were even urban myths of poppers being pumped through the air conditioning systems of gay clubs in the 1970s and 1980s. As someone coming of age on the Brighton scene in the early 1990s, the gay world was a multi-sensory experience, a subculture I could smell as much as I could see and touch.
Fischer came to his current hometown, San Francisco, in 1975 to pursue a master’s degree in photography, where he slipped into the burgeoning art scene. Colour vision; 16/17 Ishihara plates correctly seen each eye, and slight tritan defect on Farnsworth D-15 test. Although this study removes the recall and responder bias seen in self-reported surveys, it is not without its limitations. In a study of samples seized from the same nightclubs in 2006, 37.8% of the liquid drugs were aqueous solutions of GHB with the remaining samples containing GBL.18 GHB was classified under the UK Misuse of Drugs Act, 1971 as a class C drug in June 2003. GBL which is a pro-drug of GHB was also classified as a Class C drug in December 2009, but only when intended for human consumption. Mephedrone was classified as a Class B drug in April 2010 but studies and surveys conducted nationwide after this date found ongoing evidence of mephedrone use25 despite the rising price of the drug since classification.8,28 This was also demonstrated in surveys in these nightclubs where mephedrone was the most commonly used drug on the night and also the most favoured drug.25 This study, approximately 18 months since classification, confirms that mephedrone continues to be present.
It is also likely that some drugs may have been consumed prior to entry to the club and there is the potential that users may source drugs within the nightclubs. An AFA staff member subsequently verified the eligibility of participants who had signed up prior to sending them a unique identifier, and a link for the baseline survey. Correlational analysis indicated that reported difficulty controlling sexual behavior was associated with having more male sex partners and sex occasions over lifetime and in the 6 months prior to interview, with a greater number of one-time partners and out-of-home partners, with less monogamy, and with being abstinent in the prior 6 months. The Pink Carpet Y Cohort Study is Singapore’s first prospective cohort study exploring the syndemic risks associated with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) acquisition among YMSM. In recent years, there has been an emergence of a range of different NPS.5 In this study the NPS detected were 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC), 5-Iodo-2-aminoindane (5-IAI) and 5/6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (5/6-APB). Of these, mephedrone and 4-MEC are classified under the UK Misuse of Drugs Act, 1971. Another controlled substance para-methoxy-N-methylamphetamine (PMMA), which was held responsible for 12 fatal intoxications in Norway31 and further outbreak of cases in Israel,32 was also found in the amnesty bin analyses.
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